обложка_пб29_new№29 Wood

Cover28_FINAL_sm  №28 Architectural landscape 

      №27 Dwelling

№26 Suomi




№26 Suomi

Проект Балтия Project Baltia Суоми Suomi

One version has it that ‘Suomi’ derives from the same Indo-European root as ‘zemlya’ [the Russian word meaning ‘ground’ or ‘land’]. By calling their country after the ground itself, the Finns have firmly linked the notion of their identity with the territory and its terrain – cliffs, lakes, forests, and snows, i.e. with everything which constitutes the distinctive character of Finnish nature. The recipe for creating a Finnish work of art was established in the Kalevala in the first half of the 19th century: the story-teller has his songs whispered to him by the wind and his speeches given him by the trees, and he himself has only to “roll up into one ball” what has he received in this way. For all its poverty and severity, this land is a rich source of inspiration. Even in the industrial 20th century the Finns managed to embody the meditative tranquility of their landscape in design (p. 33) and, of course, in architecture. Alvar Aalto said that imitation of changeable nature is “the only true style for architecture”; in this he opposed the Modernist break with the mimetic tradition (p. 77). In Finland the development of the ‘Modern movement’ took a distinctive, ‘organic’ path. Images of waves, cliffs, and forest appear constantly in the works of Aalto and his followers. Using motifs taken from nature, the Finns were able to humanize Modernism – something which Le Corbusier, for instance, did only in the form of declarations (c. his Modulor). In ‘The Englishness of English art’ Nikolaus Pevsner argues that climate is the main influence on the formation of national character in artistic culture. Another source which influences culture is the “spirit of time”. Works of art or architecture indicate the point where these two forces intersect: they are based on cultural tradition, but realize a statement which is relevant to the current moment. Currently, we are seeing global changes in climate, and time, it seems, is bent upon scoring a victory over space; all architecture – the art of working with space – can do is resist this process with all its heart or join it and so lose an important part of itself. Is there, however, something else that constitutes the ‘Finnishness of Finnish architecture’? Juhani Pallasmaa, following Kenneth Frampton, prefers to talk not of national, but of regional and local characteristics (p. 26). A locus does not have to be verbalized. Its character is conveyed directly through gestures executed in art or design. During the years when the ‘golden generation’ of Finnish Modernists (whose work was shown at the exhibition in the Hermitage which is the occasion for this issue of our magazine) were at their most active, the relevance of the ‘organic’ school was incontrovertible, including for Soviet architects too (p. 77). Today there is a risk that referencing this period is merely a fashionable trend (Levchuk, p. 38). However, the attention paid by the Hermitage to Finnish Modernism may also be interpreted as a call to evaluate afresh the significance of territory – at a moment when the wind of the digital age (‘the spirit of time’), which penetrates through the media into every corner of the earth, has already made its way deep within Finland. Architecture here is becoming increasingly less tectonic (Helin, p. 43) and so is losing its rootedness in its native land. However, is people’s consciousness changing as fast? In his first large realized building young architect Esa Ruskeepaa returns to the image of the Finnish forest (p. 64). Here he ‘rolls up the ball’ in a way which differs markedly from the approach taken by Aalto. The once bright grove of ‘organic Modernism’ has turned into a windbreak – possibly, under the influence of that same digital wind. And the waves on the facade relief are no longer ripples found on a lake carrying reflections of the sky, but a dark river in a dense and impassable forest thicket. Vladimir Frolov







Юхани Палласмаа. Скрытые нарративы в финской архитектуре. Диалектика локальности и глобализации


Пентти Саммаллахти. Природа вещей. Лемменсуу Тапио Вирккала


Алексей Левчук. Лекарство для настоящего времени




fi. Финская архитектурная школа: переизобретение модернизма


fi. Молчаливое знание. Интервью с Пирьо и Матти Санаксенахо


ch. Sanaksenaho Architects. Вилла-корабль, Лаошань


fi. Arkkitehtitoimisto Juhani Pallasmaa KY. Korundi. Концертный зал, Рованиеми


fi. JKMM. Городская библиотека, Сейняйоки


fi. Helin & Co. Офис компании Metsatapiola, Эспоо


fi. Эса Рускеэпяя. Школа Opinmaki, Суурпелто




ru. Минимализм и эклектика. Интервью с Владимиром Григорьевым


ru. Сомасштабность, среда, качество. Интервью с Еленой Мироновой


fi. Владимир Фролов. Алвар Аалто и Александр Жук: неортодоксальные модернисты


lt. Лютаурас Некрошюс. Литовское северное сияние: Витаутас Эдмундас Чеканаускас


ru. Данил Овчаренко. Тапиола: образец для Ленинграда, пример для Петербурга?


ee. Карин Халлас-Мурула. Финский модернизм и архитектура Эстонии


ru. Ludi Architects. «Мастерская Аникушина», реконструкция, Санкт-Петербург


lv. Гуннар Биркертс и др. Латвийская национальная библиотека, Рига


lt. Сигитас Кунцявичюс и др. Прогимназия, Бальсяй, Вильнюс




ru. Различные ценности ландшафта. Конкурс на концепцию ландшафтного решения и благоустройства береговой территории вдоль реки Охты




Выборг. История возрождения Выборг: эпицентры возрождения. Интервью с Владимиром Цоем


Великолепие аскетизма. Интервью с Александром Швером


Новая планета. Интервью с Дмитрием Фридляндом


Лаборатория дизайна


Каталог выставки «AlterSPb. Город публичных пространств» ru. Владимир Фролов.Город публичных пространств. Манифест проекта AlterSPb 2015


Проекты участников выставки


Александр Евангели. Политика и темпоральность пространств


Технология и дизайн



Comments are closed.

At a conference, taking place in Tallinn on April 21-22, architecture’s turn to nature and data will be explored from political and historical perspectives. Keynote speakers are Matthew Gandy and Douglas Spencer from the UK. The conference is organised by the
Faculty of Architecture, Estonian Academy of Arts, Estonia in cooperation with the Department of Geography, Cambridge University, UK. The event is open to the public.


On August 29th, as part of the ‘Space, Time, Architecture’ series, organized by Project Baltia and the ‘Novaya Gollandiya: Cultural Urbanization’ project, Finnish architect Marco Casagrande read a lecture entitled ‘Third-generation City’. On the following day he curated the 6th Diogenes’ Clausura. And while the participants of Clausura worked on their project, Project Baltia spoke to Marco about the benefits and harm caused by architecture in our time.