№31 School


In ancient Greece ‘school’ initially meant leisure, but gradually became the word for a way of spending time which involves transfer of knowledge. Philosophical schools arose which took the form of conversations directed at acquiring the truth. Schools took shape as systems (traditions) which sometimes bore the name of a city (e.g. the Milesian and Eleatic schools).

Working on our School issue of Project Baltia, we have kept in mind the entire semantic scope of this concept. The larger part of this issue is devoted to architecture which is intended for the educational process – from kindergartens and schools, universities, to libraries and offices where education continues ad infnitum. Here we largely repeat the structure of our 6th issue, space.edu, which came out in 2009. Back then, we came to the
conclusion that more and more urban spaces of various different kinds were acquiring an educational extension (.edu). Nine years later, this tendency has only grown stronger: according to the news service RBC St Petersburg, in St Petersburg in March and April 2018 alone “more than 1,000 lectures of a general educational character took place outside universities”; this means that we may speak of a boom in lectures and education as a niche business.


Moreover, in 2009 we had only a foggy picture of the future; pupils (‘child ren’) were associated with the Other – something dangerous and unpredictable. Today, however, as we established in our 30th issue, the future has in effect already arrived, and that means that the Other is now among us. However, it has not arrived fully or uniformly. Closest to it is Finland, where from 2012 t0 2017 the educational system was reformed, with signifi-
cant consequences for school architecture. The state is investing in design competitions, and the role played by educational buildings in urban planning has acquired a critical mass (p. 38). Changes affecting spaces at institutions of higher education are also substantial. The leading type of such space is now the campus, a place where the interests of students, local inhabitants, and business intersect (p. 55).


Libraries and offices are reconstructed to satisfy the need for new formats of adult education; and perhaps it will soon be difficult to distinguish one from the other (p. 79). A separate section of this issue of Project Baltia looks at architectural education (p. 89). Finally, our Discussion section addresses the second aspect of the term ‘school’; here
architecture critics from countries in the Baltic region reflect on the current state of the Tallinn, St Petersburg, Helsinki, Riga, and Vilnius schools of architecture. And if we agree that it is Finland which lifts the curtain on the future, then it will be instructive to
know that in this country the ‘Helsinki school’ is taken to refer to the past (p. 106).

It might seem that ‘school’ is returning to its initially semantically determined sense of leisure; however, the edutainment format makes the acquisition of knowledge more
like the process of downloading an app onto one’s smartphone, and that means that the human being who is formed by this kind of education may be compared to a gadget. This is in no way surprising if we consider that the present era, the era with which,
to use the expression coined by Sergey Sitar, the pupil must ‘coincide’, is the era of communicativism (p. 26). The latter will not produce philosophical schools since, given the very name of this hypermedial system, it is interested only in increasing the
number of communicational acts (cf. transactions in economics), completely disregarding the probability of the existence of thruth. Communicativism has no creative function either. Nevertheless, precisely due to the latter’s disinterestedness in true knowledge,
new schools – philosophical or architectural – are free to arise on its technological body, like plants sprouting in cracks in the road.

Vladimir Frolov



6 Events

25 School

26 Sergey Sitar, Vladimir Frolov. Aesthetic ordination

35 First, to learn

36 Ilya Filimonov. The school in the post-mikrorayon

38 Playa. Aurinkokivi kindergarten and school, Vantaa

42 G. Natkevicius ir partneriai. Queen Morta School, Kaunas

46 8 A.M. Exupery International School, Pinki

52 Gregor Taul. One percent for art

55 secondly, to learn

56 Marina Nikiforova. Locating the campus 56

58 ALA. Reconstruction of the Dipoli building, Aalto University, Otaniemi, Espoo

64 Studio 44. The out-of-town campus of the Graduate School of Management at St Petersburg State University

71 LSV. Arena Building at Tampere University of Technology

75 b210 + Komissarov Arhitektuur. Kuressaare College Small Craft Competence Centre Towing Tank & Workshops Building

79 and thirdly, to learn…

80 Marina Nikiforova. Libraries for wolpertingers

84 Ksenia Litvinenko. Alienation [On contemporary office spaces]

86 Helin & Co. Tieto Keilalahti Campus, Espoo

89 Architectural education

90 Liutauras Nekrosius. Learning ways of cohabitation and co-creation

92 Janis Dripe: “Our goal is to educate socially responsible people”

96 Society of the future. Interview with Aleksandra Yepeshina

99 Discussion

100 Liutauras Nekrosius, Triin Ojari, Artis Zvirgzdins, Anni Vartola, Danil Ovcharenko, Aleksandr Popadin on local architectural schools of Vilnius, Tallinn, Riga, Helisnki, St Petersburg, and Kaliningrad

113 Competitions

114 Symmetrical Street Blocks. Minsk – St Petersburg

119 Dolina Park. National competition for young architects, St Petersburg

125 Thaw. Workshop, St Petersburg

131 Design lab
Small scale architectural structures by K2S, Salto, Drozdov & Partners, A.I.D.E., Processoffice

151 Design & technology

166 Catalogue


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Opening Week of the 5th Architecture Biennale will take place from September 11th – 15th, 2019 in multiple venues in the heart of Tallinn. Dedicated to the theme “Beauty Matters: The Resurgence of Beauty”, the international architecture festival, organised by the Estonian Centre for Architecture and curated by Dr. Yael Reisner, celebrates the aesthetic experience in architecture, after almost 80 years of cultural bias.

The only foreigner to take part in the series of architecture talks entitled ‘Genius loci’ (organized by Project Baltia and the ‘Novaya Gollandiya: cultural urbanization’ project) was the Finnish theoretician Juhani Pallasmaa. Russian readers know Pallasmaa from his book ‘The thinking hand. Existential and embodied wisdom in architecture’, which is now a bibliographical rarity. Here Marina Nikiforova talks to Finland’s principal architect-thinker.

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